To counter Prussia's strength, Joseph forged an alliance with Catherine II of Russia, which brought the empire into a conflict in Turkey. As a boy, he had toured the countryside with his mother, and been affected by the conditions in which the peasants lived. He established national training colleges for priests and deprived the bishops of their authority and limited their communications with the Pope. Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1740-90) Joseph was duly elected to succeed him in that dignity. In 1765 he married Maria Josepha of Bavaria, who in 1767 also died of smallpox. Prince Joseph, future Emperor Joseph II of Austria as a child, 18th century. Although Joseph felt he had been a failure, history would show he did make a difference. However, his support for ideals like religious tolerance led to lasting changes in Europe, and he paved the way for the complete abolition of feudalism in 1848. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg.Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687 and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690. Both publicly and secretly Catherine proposed a complete sharing of power in the east and southeast. The reorganization of the army secured Joseph’s position in Europe. The educational system had been consolidated throughout the monarchy. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Beginning in the 13th century with the nearly 650 year rule of the powerful … Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Joseph Ii Of Austria de la plus haute qualité. He loved his subjects and was willing to do anything for them. Hungarian nobles tried to reject Joseph's decrees on the grounds that he had not gone through an official coronation there. In a later treaty with Turkey, Joseph annexed Bukovina to his country. Joseph now endeavoured to expand his dominions in the north and east, and to make Austria dominant in Central Europe. Beginning in the 13th century with the nearly 650 year rule of the powerful … His inability to make decisions necessarily limited his ambition. The Carol Burnett Show Official Recommended for you Joseph II ruled Austria from 1780 through 1790. He is a central figure in Christianity and is emulated as the incarnation of God by many Christians all over the world. Joseph II created a collection of reforms known as Josephinism during his reign between 1780 through 1790. Unfortunately for them, in his mind that meant telling them how to do everything! The threat of war ended without a battle being fought, for in 1785 Frederick had formed the Fürstenbund (Princes’ League) against Joseph to prevent the exchange. This provoked severe resistance from powerful forces within and outside his empire, but ensured that he … In foreign matters, Joseph's attempt to exchange part of the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria was undermined by Frederick II of Prussia. Joseph I (Joseph Jacob Ignaz Johann Anton Eustachius; 26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711) was Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy from 1705 until his death in 1711. Joseph was a proponent of enlig… The Interrogator from The Carol Burnett Show (full sketch) - Duration: 12:52. With his father's death, Joseph also became his mother's co-regent, and took over the handling of the army and foreign affairs. Diversité Culturelle. By 1790, Joseph faced numerous problems in his empire, including a loss of control in the Austrian Netherlands. Joseph’s passionate zeal to change everything and to force a new form of life on his subjects met with embittered resistance, chiefly in such strongly traditional countries as the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary. However, the events of Joseph II's last years also suggest that the government was financially vulnerable to the European wars that ensued after 1792. Joseph II. On February 20, 1790, when he was 48 years old, Joseph passed away in Vienna. Joseph had been raised to believe that, as royalty, he was smarter and better than anyone else. Unlike Frederick, he was not greatly skilled at warfare, but like Frederick, he did care deeply about his people. Joseph’s first marriage in 1760 to the Bourbon princess Isabella of Parma, whom he loved passionately, ended in tragedy when she died of smallpox three years later. He is one of the best examples of Europe's enlightened despots. Deriving its name from the Old High German term "Ostarrichi" first recorded in 996 by Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, the small, landlocked nation of Austria has long been an influential player in the political and military sagas of Europe. Joseph II - Joseph II - Legacy: Joseph and his reign have generated much discussion among historians. Joseph II., Holy Roman Emperor 1765-90, sonof Francis I. The 36,000 monks forced to leave their orders were given an annuity or money to return home; those so returning could continue as secular priests. Frederick took what was later West Prussia, Austria took Galicia, and Catherine took as much border territory as she thought necessary. Joseph II of hasburg-lothringen was considered as one of the enlightened monarchs in europe together with King Friedrich II of Prussia and Empress Catherine of Russia. Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Jelly Roll Morton was an American pianist and songwriter best known for influencing the formation of modern day jazz during the 1920s. Chief Joseph was a Nez Perce chief who, faced with settlement by whites of tribal lands in Oregon, led his followers in a dramatic effort to escape to Canada. Joseph also encountered difficulties outside his empire. Joseph II Birth Date March 13, 1741 Death Date February 20, 1790 Place of Birth Vienna, Austria Place of Death Vienna, Austria AKA Holy Roman emperor Joseph II Joseph II Full Name Joseph II is plowing the field near Slawikowitz in rural southern Moravia on 19 August 1769. Yet, despite careful preparations, the organization of this large army was weak. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). https://www.biography.com/political-figure/joseph-ii. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. Future Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II became co-regent with his mother, Maria Theresa, in 1765, and sole ruler in 1780. Trouvez les Joseph Ii Of Austria images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. When Maria Theresa appointed him to the Council of State, he exhibited unusual intelligence and an intense interest in politics. Author of. When Maria Theresa died in 1780, Joseph became the absolute ruler of the Habsburg domains and enacted many reforms that his mother had refused to consider. In this case a double marriage was proposed: the Austrian heir to the Joseph II (1741-1790) was Holy Roman emperor from 1765 to 1790. For the University of Vienna, no longer under the influence of the church, Joseph tried to find the best scholars and scientists. We strive for accuracy and fairness. The artistic life of Vienna rose to new heights when the Burgtheater became the German National Theater. During the ten years in which Joseph was the sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, he attempted to legislate a series of drastic reforms to remodel Austria in the form of what liberals saw as an ideal Enlightened state. Joseph II was born on March 13, 1741, in Vienna, Austria, to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria. Joseph II of Austria was a complicated man. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The emancipation of the Jews within a short time endowed cultural life with new vitality. During his reign, Joseph put forth an average of 690 decrees a year. Joseph II of Austria was a complicated man. Many of his measures were experienced as tyranny by those whose welfare they were intended to improve. But Joseph left Prussia out of his calculations. stuff about joesph II of austria. As the firstborn son, Joseph spent his childhood knowing he would grow up to take the reins of power. This stretched the empire's resources and also opened the door for more unrest. When Catherine declared war on Turkey sooner than expected, Joseph raised an army of 250,000 men. He loved his subjects and was willing to do anything for them. Joseph had been married twice, but had lost both wives to smallpox, and had no living children. Joseph's reforms convinced people in the Austrian Netherlands that their historical privileges were not being respected. But Maria Theresa objected to the idea of religious tolerance and refused to institute reforms that Joseph, a disciple of the Enlightenment, desperately wanted. 20, 1790. His mother, Maria Theresa, was the ruler of the Habsburg empire. Joseph signed an alliance giving her a free hand for her far-reaching plans and the conquest of Constantinople and the Dardanelles and assuring Austria of substantial territorial gains. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. And with his Edict of Toleration, Joseph gave minority religions, such as Protestants, Greek Orthodox and Jews, the ability to live and worship more freely. Joseph had been raised to believe that, as royalty, he was smarter and better than anyone else. Unfortunately for them, in his mind that meant telling them how to do everything! Jesus is a religious leader whose life and teachings are recorded in the Bible’s New Testament. However, the events of Joseph II's last years also suggest that the government was financially vulnerable to the European wars that ensued after 1792. Joseph died in Vienna on February 20, 1790, at the age of 48. After her death in 1780, Joseph tried to finish her work of reform. In 1765 Joseph's father, who had with his wife's backing been elected Holy Roman emperor in 1742, died. In 1765, after his father died, Joseph became Joseph II, Holy Roman emperor. His Russian visit gave him the impression of a state retarded in its development compared with the West, but the loyalty of its enormous population to Catherine and her nearly unlimited power seemed to make her the best ally for political manoeuvres in Europe. Joseph had been raised to believe that, as royalty, he was smarter and better than anyone else. This chapter considers some of them, using new or little-known material from the Vatican, Austrian, and Hungarian archives. However, Joseph's main aim was to make the empire more efficient and financially secure. Although Joseph was co-regent, Maria Theresa maintained control of the empire. Joseph II succeeded his father Francis I as Holy Roman Emperor in 1765, ruling Austria jointly with … Joseph II of Austria (Joseph II) -- Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. fact lexicon with terms going straight to the point. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. He obtained a considerable increase of territory in the First Partition of Poland (1773), and concluded a defensive alliance with Russia , which led to great schemes for a … Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. While it is true that the policy of the emperor Joseph II, as ruler of the Austrian Monarchy in the 1780s, has often been described, certain of its aspects have still not been adequately covered. The scheme of allying the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties had its attractions. The banquets given in his honour in Paris could not conceal the truth from him: France was headed for catastrophe. Far worse, in 1787, as the result of an alliance recently concluded with Russia, Joseph involved Austria in a … Joseph, the eldest son of Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen of Lorraine (the future emperor Francis I), was strictly and thoroughly educated. Joseph II of Austria was a complicated man. Revolutionary unrest in the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary grew in the belief that preoccupation with the war would prevent the Emperor from taking on the revolutionaries as well. Joseph II, (born March 13, 1741, Vienna, Austria—died Feb. 20, 1790, Vienna), Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), at first coruler with his mother, Maria Theresa (1765–80), and then sole ruler (1780–90) of the Austrian Habsburg dominions. Joseph II ruled Austria from 1780 through 1790. The War of the Austrian Succession began with the death of Maria Theresa’s father, Emperor Charles VI, in October 1740. Although Joseph II, the Holy Roman Emperor and archduke of Austria, was perhaps the best-intentioned of all enlightened despots, he was less than successful as a ruler.The son of Francis I and Maria Theresa, who was the great matriarch of the Hapsburg dynasty and with whom he ruled jointly, Joseph II became sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in 1780 after the death of his mother. Under Maria Theresa the physician Gerard van Swieten had organized a public health service, and in Joseph’s time the General Hospital in Vienna was considered one of the best equipped in Europe. Emperor Joseph II of the Holy Roman Empire was the son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. Joseph II was born in the middle of the War of the Austrian Succession on March 13, 1741. Joseph was considered an "enlightened despot," and his reforms were open-minded, to a point. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Joseph Ii Of Austria … Austria is a land of lakes, many of them a legacy of the Pleistocene Epoch (i.e., about 2,600,000 to about 11,700 years ago), during which glacial erosion scooped out mountain lakes in the central Alpine district, notably around the Salzkammergut. As a boy, he had toured the countryside with his mother, and been affected by the conditions in which the peasants lived. Though he was in bad health, he decided to visit her again; the Austrian Netherlanders and Hungarians, enraged at his reforms, resisted the move. However, Maria Theresa, devastated after her husband’s deat… His position was now an anomaly. AUSTRIA: MARIA THERESA & JOSEPH II JOSEPH II (r. 1765-1790) Reformed judicial system & rationalized laws Enacted far-reaching reforms of rural social structure Abolished serfdom & robot Generally, he is presented as the representative enlightened absolutist—that is to say, the most typical of those 18th-century monarchs who applied the principles of the philosophical movement known as the Enlightenment to the problems of government and society. Deeply disappointed, Joseph now saw his only hope in Catherine. Joseph died believing that his reforms had weakened his empire instead of strengthening it. Download royalty-free Statue of Emperor Joseph II Hofburg Palace Vienna Austria stock photo 169064540 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock photos, vector images and illustrations. It was a lonely death. During his time in power, Joseph issued decrees that promoted equality and education, but the speed and scope of his reforms led to problems for him and his empire. Omissions? His father, in spite of his high-sounding title, had been essentially a prince consort; Maria Theresa had given him no share in the administration of her dominions. He believe… Joseph II, (born March 13, 1741, Vienna, Austria—died Feb. 20, 1790, Vienna), Holy Roman emperor (1765–90), at first coruler with his mother, Maria Theresa (1765–80), and then sole ruler (1780–90) of the Austrian Habsburg dominions. Joseph wanted to change the way education and economics were viewed in the Habsburg Empire. Patent abolishing serfdom, 1781. As women were never elected to be Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph took the title after his father’s death in 1765 yet it was his mother who remained the ruler of the Habsburg lands. His brother, Leopold, who was to be Joseph's successor, did not visit his bedside. An “enlightened despot,” he sought to introduce administrative, legal, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms—with only measured success. The first enquiry in respect of the crown prince’s marriage came from Naples when Joseph was just twelve years old. Maria Theresa had made fewer than 100 each year. Frederick II managed to block the scheme once more, this time by representing himself as the leader of the League of German Princes, dedicated to the maintenance of the status quo. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-II, The Classical Music Pages - Biography of Joseph II, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Biography of Joseph II. Joseph de Lorraine, en tant qu'empereur des Romains, Joseph II1 (Vienne, 13 mars 1741 Vienne, 20 février 1790), fils aîné de François de Lorraine, grand-duc de Toscane puis empereur des Romains2, et de Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, il succéda à son père comme empereur des Romains en 1765 et devint alors corégent des possessions héréditaires des Habsbourg ; il hérita de celles-ci en 1780 à la mort de sa mère, l'impératrice Marie-Thérè… Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era.