[59] In 1678, Titus Oates, who had been alternately an Anglican and Jesuit priest, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king, even accusing the queen of complicity. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[86]. Professor of History, King's College, University of London. Most Englishmen now favoured a return to a stable and legitimate monarchy, and, although more was known of Charles II’s vices than his virtues, he had, under the steadying influence of Edward Hyde, his chief adviser, avoided any damaging compromise of his religion or constitutional principles. Other kings had inspired more respect, but perhaps only Henry VIII had endeared himself to the popular imagination as much as this one. After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. [39], After a long spell of hot and dry weather through mid-1666, what later became known as the Great Fire of London started on 2 September 1666 in a bakehouse on Pudding Lane. [5] Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. [38] Plague cases ebbed over the winter, and Charles returned to London in February 1666. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. Charles II lost little time in strengthening England’s global power. A more pervasive and damaging limitation was on his financial independence. Monck and his army marched into the City of Lo… Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. Although Charles and Parliament granted amnesty to nearly all of Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, 50 people were specifically excluded. [6] However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death in 1685. Disillusioned by the Covenanters, in October Charles attempted to escape from them and rode north to join with an Engager force, an event which became known as "the Start", but within two days the Presbyterians had caught up with and recovered him. Those people who could sent their families away from London during these months, but the poor had no recourse but to stay. Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (31 October 1629 – 14 August 1665) was the son of Charles of Gonzaga-Nevers (d. 1631) of Rethel, Nevers, Mantua, and Montferrat; and Maria Gonzaga. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. 2.) Respo Axe II; Vie religieuse et enjeux judiciaires de l'Antiquité aux Temps modernes; dictionnaire dévotions mariales; jésuites et protestants; projets ponctuels; Axe 3 : l’Etat et les citoyens Axe 3 : l’Etat et les citoyens. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. Covers the period from October 1665 to July 1666. He was the playboy monarch, naughty but nice, the hero of all who prized urbanity, tolerance, good humour, and the pursuit of pleasure above the more earnest, sober, or material virtues. King Charles II 1660-1685 Restoration Stuart Costume. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". From the 1660s to the 1680s, Charles II added more possessions to England’s North American holdings by establishing the Restoration colonies of New York and New Jersey (taking these areas from … CAROLVS II D G HISP NEAP REX Crowned coat of arms in Golden Fleece collar. [36], In 1665, Charles was faced with a great health crisis: the Great Plague of London. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. He followed his grandfather Charles I, Duke of Mantua, in 1637 as ruler of these lands, the first ten years under regency of his mother Duchess Maria. [55], Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. The Restoration was accompanied by social change. The lesson considers the measures taken by King Charles II in response to the plague and the reactions of some of the people to these restrictions, as well as providing contemporary comment on the situation. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. This biography offers detailed information about his childhood, life, works, achievements and timeline. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Militia Act of 1661 gave Charles unprecedented authority to maintain a standing army, and the Corporation Act of 1661 allowed him to purge the boroughs of dissident officials. Statutes of the Realm: Volume 5, 1628-80. [50] It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert. [28], The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million,[29] generated largely from customs and excise duties. [63], The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles. Evénement Zoom At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. Charles Scott, Earl of Doncaster (1672-1674) 3. The bishops were restored to Parliament, which established a strict Anglican orthodoxy. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. [70], Thus through the last years of Charles's reign, his approach towards his opponents changed, and he was compared by Whigs to the contemporary Louis XIV of France, with his form of government in those years termed "slavery". 4 Codices. The years of his reign are known in English history as the Restoration period. [92] His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). Vous n’avez pas de produit dans votre panier. Le règne de Charles II (1665-1700) », et nous faisons figurer le lien pour accéder au texte définissant les … Professor Ronald Hutton summarises the polarised historiography: For the past hundred years, books on Charles II have been sharply divided into two categories. [48], In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution. Charles died after a stroke in 1685 with the problem still unresolved. It was weakness, rather than strength, that prompted this government not to summon the Cortes any more. R/ Ecu couronné, soutenu par deux lions, entouré du collier de la Toison d''or. English; La maison; Nouveautés; À paraître; Collections; Revues Shortly after his restoration as English monarch in 1660, King Charles II granted the territory of Carolina to a number of supporters who had helped him regain the throne. Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. Updates? To save Danby from the impeachment trial, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679. [84] Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. The young king became a fugitive, hunted through England for 40 days but protected by a handful of his loyal subjects until he escaped to France in October 1651. Charles II, byname The Merry Monarch, (born May 29, 1630, London—died February 6, 1685, London), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1660–85), who was restored to the throne after years of exile during the Puritan Commonwealth. [52] Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay to the company for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold. [37] Charles, with his family and court, fled London in July to Salisbury; Parliament met in Oxford. Sources. 18th century. For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. He was bound by the concessions made by his father in 1640 and 1641, but the Parliament elected in 1661 was determined on an uncompromising Anglican and royalist settlement. Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. [60] The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria;[61] judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. 1662: The English Parliament recognised Charles as king by unanimous vote on 2 May 1660, and he was proclaimed king in London on 8 May, although royalists had recognised him as such since the execution of his father on 30 January 1649. [2] Charles's heir presumptive was therefore his unpopular Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. 11,12g Très rare Etat de conservation exceptionnel. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Test your knowledge of the history of leadership with this quiz. The unconditional nature of the settlement that took shape between 1660 and 1662 owed little to Charles’s intervention and must have exceeded his expectations. Managing these issues was damaged by Mariana's power struggle with Charles' illegitimate half-brother, John of Austria the Younge… LUXEMBOURG, Duché, Charles II (1665-1700), billon sou de Luxembourg, 1700, Anvers . The king had no legitimate children, and he was well aware that the Scots viewed with alarm the prospect of his Roman Catholic brother James succeeding him. [20] Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. Read a biography about King Charles II whose restoration to the throne in 1660 marked the end of republican rule in England. [88], Charles was universally beloved, beloved not only by the crowd of individuals with whom he came in contact, not only adored by his dependents, but thoroughly popular with the mass of his subjects and particularly with the poorer populace of London who knew him best.[89]. The questions encourage pupils to investigate the sources and make their own judgements on the evidence where possible. In 1665 England became involved in a war with Holland. Charles II of Spain was born November 6, 1661 and became king in 1665 at the tender young age of four. [40] Charles and his brother James joined and directed the fire-fighting effort. 706. He was captured and executed. [43] Catherine journeyed from Portugal to Portsmouth on 13–14 May 1662,[43] but was not visited by Charles there until 20 May. Thus Charles emerged into precocious maturity, cynical, self-indulgent, skilled in the sort of moral evasions that make life comfortable even in adversity. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. In 1665 Charles embarked upon the Second Anglo-Dutch war in the hope of taking control of major sea routes and ending the Dutch domination of world trade. The period, which also included the reign [68] Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. 1 real 1697 l h. lima 1 real 1697 l h. lima. Charles II (1665-1700). Charles II, the eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St. James’s Palace, London. [7], At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly married.